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倒装句

[日期:2019-05-14 11:07:44] 来源: 名师工作室

在一些句子中,由于句子结构和修辞的需要,主语和谓语不是处于正常语序,而是谓语在前,主语在后,这种主语和谓语颠倒语序的现象叫倒装语序。倒装又分完全倒装和部分倒装,完全倒装是把全部谓语放在主语之前,部分倒装是把助动词或情态动词放在主语之前。

考点1:完全倒装的三种形式

1.There be句型是最常见的完全倒装形式,be的单复数形式取决于紧接在后面的主语。

[重点提示]可以用在这类句型中的动词,除be外还可用live, happen, exist, remain, stand等作这类句型的谓语。如:

There happened to be no body in the bedroom when the fire broke out.火灾发生时,碰巧床上没人。

There lies a large garden in front of the house. 房子前面有个大花园。

2.表示方位或方式的副词或介词短语,如here, there, now, then, up, down, in, away, off, out, in the room, on the wall等,置于句首,且句子谓语是go, come, run, rush, follow等表示位置移动的不及物动词时,句子用完全倒装。注意,句子的主语必须是名词。如:

Then followed eight years of the Anti-Japanese War. 接着是八年抗战。

In came the rose fragrance through the windows. 窗外传来玫瑰的芳香。

[重点提示] 这类句子的主语常为名词,当主语是代词时,就不用倒装,如:

—Give me some paper. 给我点纸。

—Here you are. 给你。

[典例链接]

At the sight of the policeman, ______ from behind the door.

A. did the boy rush out          B. the boy was rushing out

C. out rushed the boy           D. rushing out was the boy

[解析] C。句意为:一看到警察,那男孩从门后跑了出来。表示方位的副词out放句首,且句子的主语为名词the boy,故句子用完全倒装。

3.介词短语作状语放在句首时,谓语为不及物动词,句子用完全倒装。句式为:介词短语+不及物动词+主语(必须是名词)。如:

In the middle of our school stands a high building. 我们学校中央矗立着一座大楼。

Long, long time ago, there was a mountain. At the top of the mountain stood a temple, in which an old monk used to tell stories.很久很久以前,这儿有座山,山上有座庙,庙里的老和尚常讲故事。

[典例链接]

At the foot of the mountain ______. 

A. a village lies          B. lies a village

C. does a village lie       D. lying a village

[解析] B。介词短语at the foot of the mountain放句首,句子用完全倒装。

考点2:部分倒装的四种形式

1.only+副词/ 介词短语/ 状语从句位于句首时,句子需用部分倒装,如:

Only then did she realize how much damage had been caused.只有到了那时,她才意识到引起的破坏那么大。

Only in this way can you make progress in your English.只有通过这种方式,你才能在英语学习中取得进步。

Only when the war was over did the young soldier return to his hometown.只有战争结束了,那年轻的战士才回到家乡。

[重点提示]1)在only+状语从句+主句结构中,主句用倒装结构,但从句用正常语序。2)only修饰主语,不倒装,如Only Tom knows the answer。

[典例链接]

Only when your identity has been checked, ______.

A. you are allowed in          B. you will be allowed in

C. will you allow in           D. will you be allowed in

[解析] D。句意为:只有确认身份后,才允许你进入。only+状语从句位于句首时,句子需用部分倒装。

2.以含否定意义的词或短语开头的句子,要用部分倒装。表示否定意义的副词never, nor, neither;表示半否定意义的副词hardly, necessarily, few, seldom, little;含有no和not的词组by no means(决不), in no time(很快), at no time(在任何时候都不),(在任何情况下都不)。如:

Never before has this city been in greater need of modern public transport than it is today.该城市从来没有像今天这样更需要现代的公共交通设施。

Maybe you have been to many countries, but nowhere else can you find such a beautiful palace.或许你去过很多国家,但你在哪儿也不会发现这么漂亮的宫殿。

[典例链接]

①Never in my wildest dreams ______ these people are living in such poor condition.

A. I could imagine            B. could I imagine

C. I couldn’t imagine          D. couldn’t I imagine

②Of the making of good books there is no end; neither ______ any end to their influence on man’s lives.

A. there is    B. there are    C. is there    D. are there

③I’ve tried very hard to improve my English. But by no means ______ with my progress.

A. the teacher is not satisfied    B. is the teacher not satisfied

C. the teacher is satisfied       D. is the teacher satisfied

[解析] ①B。含否定意义的词never放句首,句子要用部分倒装。②C。含否定意义的词neither放句首,句子要用部分倒装。③D。含否定意义的短语by no means放句首,句子要用部分倒装。

[联想拓展]

有一些固定搭配的关联词本身含有否定意味的词或短语,若把它们置于句首,句子要用部分倒装。

[重点提示]关联词若是并列连词时,前面的分句倒装,但后面的分句不倒装;关联词若时从属连词时,主句倒装,但从句不倒装。如:

①Not only...but also...不但……而且……

     [典例链接]

______ snacks and drink, but they also brought cards for entertainment when they had a picnic in the forest.

A. Not only they brought          B. Not only did they bring

C. Not only brought they          D. Not only they did bring

[解析] B。Not only...but also...是并列连词,not only放句首,句子要用部分倒装,而且前面的分句倒装,但后面的分句不倒装。

②Neither...nor...既不……也不……

[用法点睛] 由于neither和nor都是否定词,所以置于句首时前后句均需倒装。

③Not until...直到……才……

Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.直到他开始工作时,他才意识到浪费了多么多的时间啊。

[典例链接]

Not until all the fish died in the river, ______ how serious the pollution was.

A. did the villagers realize          B. the villagers realized

C. the villagers did realize          D. didn’t the villagers realize

[解析] A。Not until...意为“直到……才……”,放句首句子用部分倒装,主句倒装,从句不倒装。

④Hardly/ Scarcely...when...一……就……

[典例链接]

Hardly ______ the papers on this desk when the door burst open.

A. he collected              B. he had collected

C. did he collected           D. had he collected

[解析] D。Hardly...when...一……就……意为“一……就……”,hardly放句首,句子用部分倒装,主句倒装,但从句不倒装。而且主句的时态用过去完成时。

⑤No sooner...than...一……就……

[典例链接]

—Did Linda see the traffic accident?

—No, no sooner ______ than it happened.

A. had she gone          B. she had gone

C. has she gone           D. she has gone

[解析] A。No sooner...than...意为“一……就……”,no sooner放句首,句子用部分倒装,主句倒装,但从句不倒装。而且主句的时态用过去完成时。

[重点提示] Hardly/ Scarcely...when...和No sooner...than...都含有“一……就……”的意思,否定副词(短语)放句首时,句子用部分倒装,而且when/than前面的主句倒装,其后的从句不倒装。并且要注意从句的时态为过去时,主句的时态为过去完成时。

3.在so, neither, nor位于分句或句子的开头,这种结构通常表示前面叙述的情况也适合于另一个人或物,表示“我也这样”一类的概念。其结构为“so/neither/nor+助动词/情态动词/系动词+主语”。如:

—It’s burning hot today, isn’t it? 今天特别炙热,是不是?

—Yes. So was it yesterday. 是的,昨天也一样。

Mary never does any reading in the evening, nor does John. 玛丽晚上从来不读书,约翰也一样。

[重点提示]

1)当so表示对前句内容的肯定、附和,或进一步强调前面所说的情况,或者赞同前面的说法时,译作“的确如此,正是这样”,应用自然语序。其结构为“so/neither/nor+主语+助动词/情态动词/系动词”。如:

—Father, you promised! 爸爸,你曾许诺过!

—Well, so I did. But it was you who didn’t keep your word first.

嗯,我的确许诺过。但是你首先没遵守诺言。

2)倒装部分的助动词,情态动词,连系动词的时态和形式要与前句相一致,主谓一致的变化要与后面主语相呼应。

If you don’t go, neither/nor shall I. 如果你不去,我也不去。

3)当表示前面的多种情况也适合于另一个人或物的时候,或者既有肯定又有否定情况或涉及到不同类型的动词时,可用:It is the same with sth./sb.或 So it is with sth./sb。如:

I like English very much, but I don’t like physics. It is the same with my elder brother.我非常喜欢英语,却不喜欢物理。我哥哥也这样。

[典例链接]

①—I would never ever come to this restrant again. The food is terrible!

—______.

A. Nor can I               B. Neither would I

C. Same with me           D. So do I

②—Maggie had a wonderful time at the party.

 —______, and so did I.

  A. So she had   B. So had she   C. So she did   D. So did she

[解析] ①B。根据句意可知,此处表示“我也不再来这家餐馆了”。上句的助动词为would,故下句的助动词也应该用would。②C。根据句意可知,此处表示“她的确完得很高兴,我也一样”。上句时态为过去时,故下句的助动词也应该用过去时。

4. so+adj /adv…that…表示“如此……以至于……”,当so+adj /adv放在句首时,主句用部分倒装语序,而that从句不倒装。如:

So difficult did I find it to work out the problem that I decided to ask Tom for advice.我发现计算这道题如此困难,以至于我决定向汤姆征求意见。

[典例链接]

______ about wild plants that they decided to make a trip to Madagascar for further research.

A. So curious the couple was          B. So curious were the couple

C. How curious the couple were        D. The couple was such curious

[解析] B。So curious放句首,句子用部分倒装,主句倒装,但从句不倒装。

考点3:倒装句的三点特殊用法

1. as引导让步状语从句时,要把所强调的信息放在句首,形成倒装语序。其结构为“表语/状语/动词原形+as+主语+其他”。

[重点提示]1)though引导让步状语从句时,可以倒装也可以不倒装;although引导让步状语从句时,不能倒装。

Although she is young, she knows quite a lot.尽管她年轻,知道的却很多。

1)如果表语是单数可数名词,置于句首要省去冠词。

Quiet student as he may be, Jim talks a lot about his favorite pop singers after class.尽管吉姆可能是一位安静的学生,课下也谈论很多他最喜欢的流行歌手。

Much as I admire David as a poet, I do not like him as a man.尽管我羡慕大卫的诗歌天赋,但不喜欢他的为人。

Try as she might, Carolina couldn’t get the door open.她尽管努力了,卡罗莱娜还是开不开门。

[典例链接]

Much ______ the young couple needed money to make the down payment for the apartment, they wouldn’t ask their parents for help.

A. although     B. as     C. even if     D. which

[解析] B。作状语的much放句首,构成倒装,故as为本题答案。

2. 如果虚拟条件句的谓语含有were, should, had,可以把if省略而将这三个词放于条件句主语前,构成倒装。

Should there be a flood, what would we do? 如果发生洪灾,我们该怎么办?

[典例链接]

______ for the free tickets, I would not have gone to the films so often.

A. If it is not               B. Were it not

C. Had it not been           D. If they were not

[解析] C。根据主句中I would not have gone to the films,可知此处是与过去相反的假设,且从句又省略了if,故C为最佳答案。

3. 当however,whatever,no matter how,no matter what等引导让步状语从句时,其语序往往为“however/no matter how+形容词或副词+主语+谓语”或“whatever/no matter what+名词+主语+谓语”,如:

However late he is, Mother will wait for him to have dinner together.无论多晚,妈妈总要等他回来一块吃晚饭。

If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, however great it is.工作时,只有我们有坚强的意志,不论困难多大都能克服。

The old tower must be saved, whatever the cost.不管花费什么代价,也要拯救这座古塔。

[典例链接]

This is a very interesting book. I’ll buy it, ______.

A. how much may it cost              B. no matter how it may cost

C. however much it may cost           D. how may it cost

词或副词+主语+谓语”。


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