主页 > 英语语法

英语中的省略

[日期:2019-05-14 10:51:27] 来源: 名师工作室

为了避免重复,突出关键词,并使上下文紧密连接,在句子中有时就省去一个或几个句子成分,这种句子被称之为省略句。省略分为以下几种:

考点1:省略主语

特别是在口语中,我们往往可以省略句子的主语,使我们的对话更加简介明了、通俗易懂。

—How about seeing the new movie at the theater tonight?

—Sounds great, but I’ve got to go over my notes for tomorrow’s exam.

—今天晚上我们到电影院看这部新影片,怎么样?

—好主意!但是我必须先复习明天考试的笔记。

【典例链接】

—I’d like to take a week’s holiday.

—______, we’re too busy.

A. Don’t worry    B. Don’t mention it    C. Forget it    D. Pardon me

【解析】C。此处Forget it意为“算了吧”,表示拒绝某人的建议,它是You can forget it的省略。

考点2:省略主语和谓语的一部分

—How did you find your visit to Qingdao, Joanna? 乔娜,去青岛的这次旅游你感觉如何?

—Oh, (it’s) wonderful indeed. 噢,棒极了。

【典例链接】

①—It’s been a wonderful evening. Thank you very much.

—______.

A. My pleasure    B. I’m glad to hear that    C. No, thanks    D. It’s OK

②—You’d better be careful, Linda. The knife is sharp.

—______, Mum.

A. I won’t         B. I can               C. Got it         D. No problem

【解析】①A。My pleasure意为“别客气”,是回答对方表示感谢的客套话,它是It’s my pleasure的省略。②C。此处Got it意为“我知道了”,它是I’ve got it的省略。

考点3:动词不定式的省略

有时候根据上下文,我们可以对不定式省略,只保留不定式符号to,其否定式为not to。

The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him not to.这孩子想在街上骑自行车,但他妈妈告诉他不能那么做。

【重点提示】如果不定式中含有be, have, have been等助动词,通常要保留这些助动词,以免出现歧义。如:

-Are you the manager? 你是经理吗?

-No, and I don’t want to be. 不是,我也不愿意当经理。

【联想拓展】动词不定式的省略,常常放在一些动词或形容词的后面。这类动词有:like, love, prefer, hope, mean, intend, wish, want, expect等;这类形容词有:glad, happy, pleased, delighted, afraid等。如:

-Who would like to go to the cinema with me? 谁愿意和我一块去看电影?

-I’d like to (go to the cinema with you). 我愿意。

【典例链接】

—I’ll be away on a business trip. Would you mind looking after my cat?

—Not at all. ______.

A. I have no time    B. I’d rather not    C. I’d like it    D. I’d be happy to

【解析】D。句意为“我要到外地出差。帮我照料一下猫,你介意吗?”“不介意,能这么做我很高兴。”根据句意可以排除A、B,C选项中的it指代具体的事物,而不能指代一个动作,故D为最佳答案。

考点4:从句中的省略

1)省略定语从句中作宾语的关系代词

在限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词that, which, whom常常可以省略。如:

Is this the reason (that/which) he explained at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?

这是他在会议上解释工作粗心的原因吗?

【典例链接】

—Do you have anything to say for yourselves?

—Yes, there is one point ______ we must insist on.

A. why    B. where    C. how    D. /

【解析】D。先行词point在定语从句中作insist on的宾语,所以只能选择冠词代词,可以排除A、B、C;另外,关系代词在从句中作宾语可以省略。

【重点提示】引导非限制性的which不能省略;用在介词后面的关系代词不能省略。如:

Her sister has become a lawyer, which she wanted to be.她姐姐成为一名律师了,她过去也想当一名律师。

【典例链接】

We saw several natives advancing towards our party, and one of them came up to us, ______ we gave some bells and glasses.

A. to which        B. to whom      C. with whom      D. with which

【解析】B。先行词one of them指人且在从句中作宾语,当介词提前时关系代词不可省。

【联系拓展】当先行词是time, reason, place时,作状语的关系副词when, why, where有时也可省略。如:

This is the third time (when) I has been to the Great Wall. 这是我第三次爬长城了。

2)状语从句中省略现象

【重点提示】在条件、时间、地点状语从句中,如果主句主语与从句主语一致,可以省略掉从句中的主语和系动词be。另外,如果从句中有形式主语it,且有系动词be,也可以省略掉it和系动词be。这样从句可能变为一下结构:①连词+名词;②连词+形容词;③连词+副词;④连词+现在分子;⑤连词+过去分词;⑥连词+不定式;⑦连词+介词短语等。如:

When comparing different cultures, we often pay attention only to the differences without noticing the many similarities.

当比较不同的文化时,我们经常只注重不同点,却忽视了那么多的相同点。

When offered help, one often says “Thank you.” or “It’s kind of you.”

当别人提供帮助时,一个人经常说“谢谢”或“你真是太好了”。

—I hear Johnson was badly injured in the accident. 我听说约翰逊在事故中受了重伤。

—If so, let’s go and see him. 如果真这样,我们去看望他吧。

【典例链接】

The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if ______ whether he was going in the right direction.

A. seeing        B. having seen     C. to have seen        D. to see

【解析】D。此处是表语从句as if he wanted to see whether he was going in the right direction的省略,to see表示将要去做某事。