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高考对过去分词的考查

[日期:2019-05-11 10:22:36] 来源: 名师工作室

动词的过去分词用法灵活,应用广泛,在高考试卷中,单项填空、完形填空、短文改错等诸多题型都设置了对动词过去分词的考查。本文主要回顾一下它在单项填空中的应用。

一、动词过去分词作表语

1. Cleaning women in big cities usually get ______ by the hour.

A. pay    B. paying    C. paid    D. to pay

2. As we joined the big crowd I got ______ from my friends.

     A. separated    B. spared    C. lost    D. missed

【简析】第1题答案为C,过去分词paid作系动词get的表语,类似的用法还有:get marriedget beatenget excitedget caught in等。同样,第2题答案为A,句意为:当我们走进人群中时,我和朋友们分开了。

过去分词作表语时,应注意它和现在分词的区别:现在分词常常表示特征,意为“令人……”,而过去分词则表示状态,意为“(某人)感到……”,如:

3. I used to play ping-pong a lot in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football.[短文改错]

 [答案]interesting改为interested

二、动词过去分词作定语

动词过去分词表示的意义是被动的和完成的,单个的分词作定语常常放在被修饰词的前面,而分词短语作定语时,通常置于被修饰词的后面,其作用相当于一个定语从句。

4. Most of the artists ______ to the party were from South Africa.

     A. invited    B. to invite    C. being invited    D. had been invited

【简析】句中的most of the artistsinvite之间是被动关系,故应选用过去分词,相当于who were invited,答案为A

5. The computer centre, ______ last year, is very popular among the students in this school.[M93]

     A. open    B. opening    C. having opened    D. opened

【简析】根据句中的last year可知the computer centre去年就开业了,表示完成的动作;而且openthe computer centre又存在被动关系,句意为:去年开办的计算机中心在这学校里受到学生们的欢迎。答案为D

6.The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language come out in the 16th century.

     A. having written    B. to be written    C. being written    D. written

【简析】根据语境,我们应选D,因为written既表示被动又表示完成的动作。A不能作后置定语,B是不定式的被动语态,表示将来的动作,C表示正在进行的动作,均不合题意。

7. The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 BC, did not include women players until 1912.

     A. first playing    B. to be first played    C. first played    D. to be first playing

【简析】根据题意可知,the Olympic Gamesplay之间是被动关系,因此可以排除AD,另外B表示将来的动作,也应排除,故答案为C。它可还原成一个非限制性定语从句:which was first played in 776 BC

三、动词过去分词作宾语补足语

8. —Good morning. Can I help you?

   —I'd like to have this package ______, madam.

     A. be weighed    B. to be weighed    C. to weigh    D. weighed

【简析】have sth. done是固定结构,意为“让别人去做某事”或“让某事被别人完成”,该题表示“我想让别人称这个包裹”,因此答案为D,过去分词weighedthis package的宾语补足语。

9. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back.

     A. being tied    B. having tied    C. to be tied    D. tied

【简析】在with复合结构中,handstie之间含有被动关系,因此首先排除B,另外此处tied不但表示被动,还可以表示完成,因此AC又可排除,故答案为D

10. The speaker raised his voice but still couldn't make himself ______.

     A. hear    B. to hear    C. hearing    D. heard

【简析】make oneself heard为固定结构,意为“使自己的声音被别人听到”,再如make oneself understood表示“把自己的意思表达清楚”,故答案为D

11. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.

     A. carry out    B. carrying out    C. carried out    D. to carry out

【简析】该题句式结构较为复杂,首先,先行词the plan后跟一个由that引导的定语从句;在定语从句中,关系代词that替代the plan,又充当动词see的宾语,因此该空处于宾语补足语的位置;另外,the plancarry out之间是动宾关系,故答案为C,构成see sth. done结构。

四、动词过去分词作状语

过去分词作状语时,它常与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系。作条件、原因、时间状语时,分词短语常位于句首;作伴随、方式、结果状语时,分词短语常位于句末。

12. ______ more attention, the trees could have grown better.

     A. Given    B. To give    C. Giving    D. Having given

【简析】句子主语the treesgive之间是被动关系,故答案选A,过去分词短语given more attention作条件状语,放于句首。

13. ______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.

     A. Losing    B. Having lost    C. Lost    D. To lose

【简析】be lost in thought为固定搭配,意为“陷入沉思”,因此答案选C,过去分词短语Lost in thought与句子主语he构成逻辑上的动宾关系,且在句中作原因状语。

五、动词过去分词作独立成分

14.______ the general state of his health, it may take him a while to recover from the operation.

     A. Given    B. To give    C. Giving    D. Having given

【简析】此题答案为A。此处given是介词,意为“假设,如果,考虑到,设想到”,句意为“鉴于他的健康状况,手术后康复还需要一段时间”。另外,given作为这一含义时,还可作连词,后接从句,如:It seemed bad-tempered to send him away, given that he only wanted to take photographs.

六、动词过去分词在省略句中的应用

15.The research is so designed that once ______ nothing can be done to change it.

     A. begins    B. having begun    C. beginning    D. begun

【简析】答案为Donce begun在句中作条件状语,它是状语从句once it is begun的省略,句意为:这项调查研究事先计划地如此完好,以至于一旦开始,什么也无法改变它。